The goal of Synthesis With Catalysts Pvt Ltd is to help our customers to further improve their production methodologies, increase productivity, and develop new products.
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Towards this goal, we endeavor to make our catalysts available at a very competitive price along with the shortest possible supply time. We can also partner with our customers on product, process, and technology development. We can also manufacture ligands and the intermediates required to synthesize these catalysts. We maintain high levels of laboratory and workplace safety and endeavor to make our products and processes as safe as possible.
Our range of catalysts is highly selective for the intended application and produce minimum or no side products. We strive for making the entire process green and environmentally safe with no additional financial burden to the production cost of the targeted product. The processes of Synthesis With Catalysts Pvt Ltd are designed to give better long-term financial gains to our customers.
To achieve the best understanding and development of a catalyst it is important that different special fields work together. These fields can be: organic chemistry, analytic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, chemical engineers and surface chemistry. The economics must also be taken into account. One of the issues that must be considered is if the company should use money on doing the catalyst research themselves or buy the technology from someone else.
As the analytical tools are becoming more advanced, the catalysts used in the industry are improving. One example of an improvement can be to develop a catalyst with a longer lifetime than the previous version. Some of the large chemical processes that use catalysis today are the production of methanol and ammonia. Both methanol and ammonia synthesis take advantage of the water-gas shift reaction and heterogeneous catalysis , while other chemical industries use homogenous catalysis. If the catalyst exists in the same phase as the reactants it is said to be homogenous; otherwise it is heterogeneous.
The water gas shift reaction was first used industrially at the beginning of the 20th century.
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Today the WGS reaction is used primarily to produce hydrogen that can be used for further production of methanol and ammonia. The most common catalysts used in the water-gas shift reaction are the high temperature shift HTS catalyst and the low temperature shift LTS catalyst. The main purpose of the LTS catalyst is to reduce CO content in the reformate which is especially important in the ammonia production for high yield of H 2.
Both catalysts are necessary for thermal stability, since using the LTS reactor alone increases exit-stream temperatures to unacceptable levels. Low temperatures will therefore shift the reaction to the right, and more products will be produced. When preparing this catalyst, one of the most important step is washing to remove sulfate that can turn into hydrogen sulfide and poison the LTS catalyst later in the process. Chromium is added to the catalyst to stabilize the catalyst activity over time and to delay sintering of iron oxide.
Sintering will decrease the active catalyst area, so by decreasing the sintering rate the lifetime of the catalyst will be extended. The catalyst is usually used in pellets form, and the size play an important role. Large pellets will be strong, but the reaction rate will be limited. This usually happens in the reactor start-up phase and because the reduction reactions are exothermic the reduction should happen under controlled circumstances. The lifetime of the iron-chrome catalyst is approximately 3—5 years, depending on how the catalyst is handled.
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Research has narrowed it down to two possible mechanisms: a regenerative redox mechanism and an adsorptive associative mechanism. The adsorptive mechanism assumes that format species is produced when an adsorbed CO molecule reacts with a surface hydroxyl group:.
The low temperature process is the second stage in the process, and is designed to take advantage of higher hydrogen equilibrium at low temperatures. While the HTS reactor used an iron-chrome based catalyst, the copper-catalyst is more active at lower temperatures thereby yielding a lower equilibrium concentration of CO and a higher equilibrium concentration of H 2.
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The disadvantage with a copper catalysts is that it is very sensitive when it comes to sulfide poisoning, a future use of for example a cobalt- molybdenum catalyst could solve this problem. Also the LTS catalyst has to be activated by reduction before it can be used.
As for the HTS catalyst mechanism, two similar reaction mechanisms are suggested. The first mechanism that was proposed for the LTS reaction was a redox mechanism, but later evidence showed that the reaction can proceed via associated intermediates. In  there are in total three mechanisms that are proposed for the water-gas shift reaction over Cu , given below. Intermediate mechanism usually called associative mechanism : An intermediate is first formed and then decomposes into the final products:. Redox mechanism: Water dissociation that yields surface oxygen atoms which react with CO to produce CO 2 :.
It is not said that just one of these mechanisms is controlling the reaction, it is possible that several of them are active. Tang et al. For both HTS catalyst and LTS catalyst the redox mechanism is the oldest theory and most published articles support this theory, but as technology has developed the adsorptive mechanism has become more of interest. One of the reasons to the fact that the literature is not agreeing on one mechanism can be because of experiments are carried out under different assumptions. CO must be produced for the WGS reaction to take place. This can be done in different ways from a variety of carbon sources such as: .
Both the reactions shown above are highly endothermic and can be coupled to an exothermic partial oxidation.
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The products of CO and H 2 are known as syngas. When dealing with a catalyst and CO, it is common to assume that the intermediate CO-Metal is formed before the intermediate reacts further into the products.rydobajygi.gq
When designing a catalyst this is important to remember. The strength of interaction between the CO molecule and the metal should be strong enough to provide a sufficient concentration of the intermediate, but not so strong that the reaction will not continue. CO is a common molecule to use in a catalytic reaction, and when it interacts with a metal surface it is actually the molecular orbitals of CO that interacts with the d-band of the metal surface. When a CO molecule is adsorbed on a metal surface, the d-band of the metal will interact with the molecular orbitals of CO.
In the figure given here experiments has been done on Cu and Cu The figure shows Arrhenius plot derived from reaction rates. It can be seen from the figure that Cu shows a faster reaction rate and a lower activation energy. This can be due to the fact that Cu is more closely packed than Cu Production of methanol is an important industry today and methanol is one of the largest volume carbonylation products.
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