Among the main signals observed were: mucositis, rampant caries, parched skin and flushing in the irradiated area.
Blood Biochemistry Analysis to Detect Smoking Status and Quantify Accelerated Aging in Smokers
All participants of the experimental group of this study showed reduction of the salivary flow rate. Some reported severe alterations relating to discomfort and pain, others showed less of the latter. This confirms data found in the literature 2 , and in our clinical observations in which patient's saliva after treatment was scarce and considerably more viscous, leading to oral discomfort. The same result did not occur when a statistical comparison was made between salivary flow rate and the buffering capacity of the data obtained at the end of the treatment of the experimental group, and the data of the control group.
This shows that reduction of the salivary flow rate and of the buffering capacity are directly linked to radiotherapy treatment and not to the presence of cancer. In other words, a patient with head and neck cancer HNC has, prior to radiotherapy, a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity, just like patients without HNC. These results are in agreement with those of several papers found in the literature 6,15, Although not noted here, a statistically significant alteration of the concentration of total protein was described in the work of Funegard et al.
On the other hand, a reduction of the specific activity of the a -amylase was noted, indicating that radiation acts specifically on some proteins. Salivary amylase has high activity: dilutions to evaluate its activity became necessary. It is also resistant to some proteolytic enzymes produced by microorganisms of the oral cavity. Therefore, the evaluation of this enzyme can faithfully represent biochemical alterations that occurred due to the radiation treatment of group I patients.
This suggests that the specific activity of a -amylase, like those of the salivary flow rate and buffering capacity, were modified during radiotherapy. This is due to the fact that irradiation destroys glandular tissue, mostly serous acini, causing changes in the quantity and quality of the saliva produced by patients after going through the head and neck radiotherapy treatment. With our results it becomes possible to affirm that neither the radiotherapy treatment, nor the presence of cancer had an influence on the total concentration of salivary proteins. However, this does not mean that specific activity of a given enzyme remains unchanged after the treatment, as noticed for a -amylase.
Series: Laboratory Techniques in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
This specific difference happens because of the many components of total saliva that are produced in several glands The observation of electrophoregrams of total saliva samples of patients with cancer showed notable differences, in some areas of relative molecular mass, comparing to the control group. This leads us to infer that the proteins that migrate to this region can be undergoing a partial proteolytic process, causing a decrease in their molecular mass or changes in their synthesis or post-translational changes.
Under the experimental conditions of this study we shall conclude that patients submitted to radiotherapy to treat head and neck cancer present a significant reduction of salivary flow rate, buffering capacity and protein electrophoretic pattern in relation to healthy individuals. Thomaz Ghilarde Netto, for the authorization to work in the clinic of radiotherapy and carry out this work. Lactoferrin, amylase and mucin MUC5B and their relation to the oral microflora in hyposalivation of different origins.
Oral Microbiol Immunol ; Andrews N, Griffiths C. Dental complications of head and neck radiotherapy: Part 1. Aust Dent J ; Prognostic value of the pilocarpine test to identify patients who may obtain long-term relief from xerostomia by acupuncture treatment. Arch Otolaryngol Head and Neck Surg ; Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem ; Parotid saliva composition during and after irradiation of head and neck cancer. A feasibility study of salivary gland autograft transplantation for xerostomia.
Blood test - Wikipedia
Head Neck ; Biochemical changes in tumor tissues of oral cancer patients. Clin Biochem ; Laemmli UK. Also, respiratory therapists are trained to extract arterial blood to examine arterial blood gases. A basic metabolic panel measures sodium , potassium , chloride , bicarbonate , blood urea nitrogen BUN , magnesium , creatinine , glucose , and sometimes calcium.
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Some tests, such as those that measure glucose or a lipid profile , require fasting or no food consumption eight to twelve hours prior to the drawing of the blood sample. For the majority of tests, blood is usually obtained from the patient's vein. Other specialized tests, such as the arterial blood gas test, require blood extracted from an artery.
Blood gas analysis of arterial blood is primarily used to monitor carbon dioxide and oxygen levels related to pulmonary function, but is also used to measure blood pH and bicarbonate levels for certain metabolic conditions. While the regular glucose test is taken at a certain point in time, the glucose tolerance test involves repeated testing to determine the rate at which glucose is processed by the body.
Blood tests results should always be interpreted using the ranges provided by the laboratory that performed the test. Example ranges are shown below. Upon completion of a blood test analysis, patients may receive a report with blood test abbreviations. Examples of common blood test abbreviations are shown below.
For example, lipid levels can't be measured with saliva testing. In February , Canadian researchers at the University of Calgary's Schulich School of Engineering announced a microchip for blood tests. Dubbed a microemulsion, a droplet of blood captured inside a layer of another substance.
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It can control the exact size and spacing of the droplets. The new test could improve the efficiency, accuracy and speed of laboratory tests while also doing it cheaply. It uses tiny trenches to separate blood cells from plasma 99 percent of blood cells were captured during experiments. Researchers used plastic components, to reduce manufacturing costs.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the novel by Jonathan Kellerman, see Blood Test novel.
Volume 33. FRET and FLIM Techniques
Main article: Reference ranges for blood tests. Retrieved June 21, Archived from the original on June 29, Retrieved Manic EP. Retrieved 17 January NHS UK. Burtis and E.
hornrimeatebi.ml Monthly Prescribing Reference. National Library of Medicine.
Volume 18. Methods of Cell Separation
Each book in the series provides a clear, concise, and easy-to-follow layout, which is ideal for use as a reference source, on-the-bench, or as a student tutorial. Methods of Cell Separation brings to the attention of researchers at all levels the variety of methods available for separating viable populations of cells.
Methods are grouped into 3 categories based on the criteria of separation, namely; size or density; non-specific surface properties; and specific surface properties. The principle of each method is described together with general and, where possible, specific protocols for conducting cell separation experiments. A central theme of the book is the separation of populations of blood lymphocytes which is used as an example for each method. Methods of Cell Separation is distinguished by three powerful assets: descriptions of the majority of cell separation methods currently being used; details of the experimental procedures involved in each method; and comparisons of the different methods for separating cell populations with particular reference to blood lymphocytes.
Related Methods of Biochemical Analysis, Volume 18
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