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Account Options Anmelden. Meine Mediathek Hilfe Erweiterte Buchsuche. E-Book anzeigen. Reaktion Books Amazon. Navies in Modern World History. Heartened by the French presence, the Sardinian navy violated the armistice and sent its squadron back into the Adriatic, but a second defeat on land, in March , forced the Sardinians to call their navy home yet again.
The French squadron remained in the Adriatic until the surrender of Venice in August , but after April did nothing to hinder Austrian operations, owing to a policy shift by the new president of the Second Republic, Louis Napoleon. The force sent to restore the temporal powers of Pope Pius ix included three batteries of artillery backed by 7, men, horses and rations for three weeks. The steam navy provided the transport from Toulon to Civitavecchia, and the force commenced its brief, successful campaign just ten days after Louis Napoleon issued his initial orders.
While the two navies never formally divided responsibility for the Baltic and Black Sea theatres, the French ultimately sent most of their best warships to the Black Sea and the British, to the Baltic. Otherwise, the allied force led by Vice Admiral Bruat and Rear Admiral Lyons included equal numbers of French and British t h e f r e n c h n av y, 1 8 4 0 s — 1 8 9 0 s.
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As in the Britishled attack on Sveaborg in the Baltic two months earlier, the smaller warships inflicted most of the damage at Kinburn and suffered little in return, since they presented smaller targets for the Russian fortress guns. Displacing 1, tons apiece and virtually immobile, the three floating batteries were struck a number of times by Russian artillery, but none was damaged.
The British had maintained their predominance by outbuilding the French in the size of their ironclads if not in sheer numbers , and the other naval powers had joined the ironclad race as well. Yet after pioneering the armoured warship the French navy went three decades before one of its ironclads fired a shot in anger. The mere presence of the three batteries, along with six screw ships of the line, sufficed to keep the Austrian navy which at the time had no warship larger than a frigate in port for the duration of the brief conflict.
During the campaign the French lost just one vessel, the screw gunboat Amphion, wrecked off Veracruz in The French deployed one ironclad to Mexican waters, even though its presence was hardly justifiable given the lack of opposition. The armoured frigate Normandie, sister-ship of the Gloire, became the first ironclad to cross the Atlantic when it joined the squadron off Veracruz in —3. The vastly outnumbered navy of the North German Confederation included three armoured frigates, which attempted just two sorties, encountering no French warships on either occasion.
Fears of further French naval action all but shut down German overseas commerce for the duration of the war. To secure the future French Indochina, a squadron under Rear Admiral Courbet blockaded Hue in August and directed an assault on its citadel, forcing the capitulation of the emperor of Annam. China subsequently agreed to recognize French control over Indochina, but early in the accord broke down when China delayed in abandoning its northern Vietnamese stronghold of Lang Son.
His ironclads included the 5,ton barbette ship Bayard built —82 serving as flagship. While the brief Franco-Chinese War —5 occurred in the era of the Jeune Ecole, Courbet had been sent to the Far East too early for his squadron to include the latest torpedo boats. At the decisive Battle of the Min River 23 August the French improvised torpedo craft from four small steam launches, which participated in the defeat of the Fukien fleet.
In a smaller battle at Shei-Poo 14—15 February the Bayard deployed two launches armed with spar torpedoes that sank the 2,ton screw frigate Yu Yuen, the last remaining larger warship in the Fukien fleet and the largest Chinese warship sunk in the conflict. Landing parties lost more men to sickness than to Chinese fire, and Courbet himself fell ill after contracting a tropical disease during an aborted invasion of Taiwan.
He died aboard the Bayard in the nearby Penghu Islands in June , the same month that the war ended with the reinstatement of the terms of In a fitting tribute to the commander of the first French armoured squadron to engage in combat, the navy honoured him by naming its next new battleship commissioned the Courbet.
Yet even in relative decline, the French navy remained central to British strategic concerns.
Colonialism and Imperialism, – — EGO
The innovative spirit only gradually became endemic, and even then, it always had its opponents. Yet it became more widespread and remained more influential in France than elsewhere among the great naval powers. Scholars tend to judge military institutions by their record of victories and defeats alone, often obscuring the true significance of their role in or contribution to history.
From the s until the end of the s, the challenge posed by the French fleet repeatedly compelled the British to embrace new designs and technologies in order to maintain their position as the leading naval power. In each instance — with the screw-propelled battleship, the armoured battleship, the steel cruiser, the torpedo boat and ultimately the submarine — the British navy benefited considerably from having a credible rival to build against.
Because in each round of the competition the British ultimately built more of the ship type in question than the French or, indeed, anyone else , French naval activity in the nineteenth century may be viewed as a series of exercises in futility. Nevertheless, were it not for the historical role played by the French navy, the application of modern industrial technologies in the naval realm would probably have followed a very different course. In , with Portugal threatened by French invasion, the ruling Braganza family fled to Rio de Janeiro and did not return to Lisbon until compelled to do so in the wake of the Portuguese revolution of These measures sparked an independence movement that Dom Pedro quickly embraced, for his own sake and to keep Brazil in the hands of the Braganza dynasty.
Brazil alone had the capability to build its own warships in significant numbers, including vessels as large as ships of the line, in a naval arsenal at Rio de Janeiro that dated from Other supporting facilities, most of them in Rio de Janeiro, were established in after the arrival of the Braganzas. But the emergency atmosphere of —3 did not allow the luxury of new construction, and Dom Pedro, like the leaders of the neighbouring republics, assembled his initial fleet from existing warships. Throughout most of , until Portugal declared him a rebel, he took full advantage of his status as crown prince to retain in Brazilian waters as many Portuguese warships as could be officered and manned by naval personnel loyal to him.
Thereafter loyalties wavered aboard many naval vessels, but the Brazilians lost only one larger ship, the Thetis, to Portuguese authorities at Montevideo who subsequently could not muster a crew large enough to sail it back to Portugal.
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It remained anchored at Montevideo throughout the ensuing War for Independence, of no use to either side. The Brazilian navy, not counting its schooners, had just eight warships carrying half as many guns. The new government faced a dilemma: without tax revenue from the distant provinces of the north, it lacked the resources to assemble a larger fleet, but it needed a larger fleet in order to secure control over those provinces.
In January Dom Pedro initiated a subscription that soon provided the funds to pay for additional warships. Another four brigs included one purchased from an American privateer, one from a British firm and two from the Brazilian merchant marine. During the same months the navy lost a schooner and three unarmed transports on the River Plate, which went over to the Portuguese at Montevideo. The mercenaries were led by Thomas, Lord Cochrane, commander of the Chilean navy from to , who raised his flag in the Pedro I and set out to attack Bahia on 1 April , just ten days after receiving his Brazilian commission.
In just over seven months Cochrane had chased the The war against Portugal was over, although not officially, since Lisbon had yet to recognize the independence of Brazil. The British merchant brig that had brought Cochrane from Chile was purchased and armed as a warship. In September the Brazilians captured the Portuguese corvette Voador when it entered the harbour of Rio de Janeiro on a peace mission, but under the flag of Portugal rather than a flag of truce; the ship joined the Brazilian navy as the Itaparica.
These additions to the fleet raised its strength to one ship of the line, five frigates, four corvettes and eleven brigs, supplemented by a number of schooners, gunboats and transports. During the summer of —4 the navy lost a brig and a schooner seized at Recife in Pernambuco, the centre of the rebellion, but in July these vessels were recaptured along with another rebel brig.
Over the subsequent twelve months the navy added another three brigs — a commissioned prize, a purchased American merchantman and t h e b r a z i l i a n n av y, 1 8 2 2 — 3 1. The conflict, known as the Cisplatine War owing to its focus on the River Plate, lasted from December to October before ending in a compromise peace that gave Uruguay its independence. Dom Pedro considered a large blue-water navy essential to command international respect, in South American waters and beyond, and used the war to justify further naval expansion.
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Brazil opened the conflict with a force of one ship of the line, six frigates, five corvettes and fifty-three brigs, schooners and gunboats. Brazil also purchased its first pair of steamships, both originally laid down as merchantmen in British shipyards. The ton Correio Imperial ex-Hibernia reached Rio de Janeiro on the eve of the war, and the Correio Brasileiro ex-Britannia , of the same design, during Usually armed with three or four light cannon apiece, they would have little fighting value.
Under such conditions the brigs, schooners and gunboats of the Brazilian and Argentinian navies saw most of the action, often in bitter fighting, with several of the smallest warships changing hands two or three times during the course of the conflict. As of May , the Argentinian navy not counting privateers included Portugal would not accept Dom Pedro as heir to the throne owing to his role in separating Brazil from the mother country, and the other obvious candidate, his younger brother Dom Miguel, had been exiled after leading a failed rebellion against his father in The brothers soon hatched a scheme under which Dom Pedro renounced the Portuguese throne in favour of his young daughter, Maria, who would then marry her uncle.
Dom Miguel would have the status of prince consort and, for the foreseeable future, rule Portugal as regent for his child-bride, but in he reneged on the deal and seized the throne for himself, touching off the so-called Miguelist War, a Portuguese civil war in t h e b r a z i l i a n n av y, 1 8 2 2 — 3 1.
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